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高階參考:RAVINTSARA(桉油樟)和RAVENSARA(羅文莎葉)的困境
學苑教務處

/ 2019/11/07

THE RAVINTSARA AND RAVENSARA DILEMMA

The Healing Trail: Essential Oils of Madagascar: The Ravintsara and Ravensara Dilemma  P53-55.


RAVINTSARA(桉油樟)和RAVENSARA(羅文莎葉)的困境

Compounding the problematic issue of the ravintsara tree’s genealogy is another dilemma: Oil made from the leaf of the ravintsara tree is some times confused with essential oil made from a different Malagasy tree whose scientific name is Ravensara aromatic,Sonnerat. Ravensara aromatic oil is sometimes sold as ravintsara oil. Likewise, ravintsara oil is sometimes sold nuder the name Ravensara aromatic. There is an enormous amount of confusion among producers regarding these two essential oils.

使ravintsara(桉油樟)樹的家譜問題更加複雜的是另一個難題:用ravintsara tree(桉油樟樹)的葉子製成的油有時會與另一種馬達加斯加樹製成的精油相混淆,後者的學名是Ravensara aromatic,Sonnerat(羅文莎葉)。Ravensara aromatic(羅文莎葉)油有時以ravintsara(桉油樟)油出售。同樣,ravintsara oil(桉油樟)油有時以Ravensara aromatic oil(羅文莎葉)油的名稱出售。對於這兩種精油,生產商之間存在極大的困惑。

Ravensara aromatic is endemic to Madagascar. Common names of the tree are ravensare, havoxo, and hazomanitra. Essential oil mada from its bark is called havozo(sometimes spelled avozo)oil. A few years ago,environmentalists noticed that Ravensara aromatic trees were being cut down for their bark. To spare the trees,environmentalists urged aromatherapists to use oil from the tree’s  leaves instead of their bark. Oil from the leaves was given the name aromatic ravensare (sometimes called aromatic ravensara) to distinguish it from the bark oil. Ravensara aromatic and the essential oils produced from it emit a faint aniseed, orlicorice-like, odor. The oils enjoy a certain popularity in the United States and Europe.

Ravensara aromatic(羅文莎葉)是馬達加斯加特有的。該樹的常見名稱是羅文莎葉,havoxo和hazomanitra(香料)。從樹皮中提取的精油稱為havozo(有時稱為avozo)油。幾年前,環保主義者註意到,羅文莎葉(Ravensara)的芳香樹正被砍伐用於樹皮。為了節省樹木,環境學家敦促芳香療法師使用樹木葉子上的油代替樹皮。樹葉上的油被命名為aromatic ravensare(有時稱為aromatic ravensara),以區別於樹皮油。羅文莎葉芳香劑和由其產生的香精油散發出淡淡的八角茴香,歐亞甘草般的氣味。這些油在美國和歐洲享有一定的知名度。
 
The names ravintsara and ravensara are similar-and easily confused-for good reason. Ravensara is a Latinization of the Malagasy word ravintsara, which, as we’ve mentioned, means “good leaf.” European botanists in the nineteenth century needed a scientific name gor the ravintsara tree.They took the Malagasy word ravintsara and fashioned it into a Latin-sounding word, ravensara. They named the ravintsara tree Ravensara aromatica. In other words,the name by which we know the licoricesmelling tree today referred in the nineteenth century to the ravintsara tree. The licorice-smelling tree,meanwhile, was called Ravensara anisata for its aniseed odor.
One problem with naming the ravintssara tree Ravensara aromatica  is its general lack of aroma. The ravintsara tree has a mild camphor odor, not the pungent odor of truly aromatic trees. Over time, the name Ravensara aromatic came to be associated with the licorice-smelling tree, which is more aromatic. Botanists and exporters were not very good at correctly naming Ravensara aromatic and Ravensara anisata. Several papers were written about one tree that were really about the other. Dealers in eaaential oils sometimes presumed that buyers wanted one kind of oil, no matter which name they asked for. Eventually, the name Ravensara anisata for the licorice-smelling tree was dropped in favor of Ravensara aromatica. And the ravintsara tree became Cinnamomum camphora.
The upshot of all this confusion is that if you are interested in essential oils from the Ravintsara leaf or Ravensara aromatica, be sure you know what you are getting:
‧Ravintsara oil is made from the leaf of the ravintsara tree. Most dealers list the scientific name of the tree as Cinnamomum camphora (although, as this chapter points out, this designation may be incorrect). Dealers who offer oil made from the bark of the ravintsara tree are really dealing in oil from Ravensara aromatica.
‧Essential oil made from the bark of Ravensara aromatica is called havozo (sometimes spelled avozo).
‧Essential oil made from the leaf of Ravensara aromatic is called aromatic ravensare (or aromatic ravensara).
‧So-called ho wood oil, which is made from Cinnamomum camphora, does not come from Madagascar. Ho wood essential oil is made from trees growing in Japan, China, and Sri Lanka. These trees share the same botanical properties as the Cinnamomum camphora that grows in Madagascar, but their leaves are composed mostly (in the 90 percent range) of linalool. Chinese ho wood oil, in fact, has replaced rosewood as the preferred source of natural linalool. (Ho wood oil does not come from the wood of the tree-it is made from the leaves).

名字ravintsara(桉油樟)和ravensara(羅文莎葉)是相似的,並且很容易混淆,這是有充分理由的。 羅文莎葉是馬拉加斯語單詞ravintsara的拉丁語,正如我們所提到的意思是“好葉子”。十九世紀的歐洲植物學家需要一個科學名稱桉油樟樹。拉丁語單詞ravensara。他們將羅文莎葉樹命名為“ Ravensara aromatica”。換句話說,我們今天所知的甘草香樹的名稱在19世紀指的是ravintsara樹(桉油樟)。甘草氣味的樹,同時,由於它的八角氣味被稱為Ravensara anisata(羅文莎葉)。
命名ravintsara tree Ravensara aromatic(桉油樟羅文莎葉樹)的一個問題是其普遍缺乏香氣。Ravintsara tree(桉油樟樹)具有溫和的樟腦氣味,而不是真正芳香的樹的辛辣氣味。隨著時間的流逝,Ravensara aromatic(羅文莎葉)的名字開始與甘草氣味的樹相關,後者更芳香。植物學家和出口商不太擅長正確命名羅文莎葉和桉油樟羅文莎葉。關於一棵樹寫的幾篇論文實際上是關於另一棵樹的。初級油的經銷商有時會認為,無論他們要求哪種名稱,購買者都想要一種油。最終,甘草香樹的名稱桉油樟羅文莎葉被放棄,取而代之的是羅文莎葉。Ravintaara tree(桉油樟)樹成了樟樹。
所有這些混亂的結果是,如果您對桉油樟或羅文莎葉香氣中的精油感興趣,請確保您知道所得到的:
‧桉油樟油是由桉油樟樹的葉子製成。大多數經銷商將這棵樹的學名列為Cinnamomum camphora(樟樹)(儘管正如本章所指出的那樣,這種命名可能是錯誤的)。提供從桉油樟樹的樹皮製成的油的交易商實際上是在用羅文莎葉的油交易。
‧由Ravensara aromatic(羅文莎葉)樹皮製成的精油被稱為havozo(有時拼寫為avozo)。
‧由Ravensara(羅文莎葉)芳香植物的葉子製成的精油被稱為aromatic ravensare(或aromatic ravensara)。
‧所謂的ho wood oil(芳樟油)不是由馬達加斯加產的,它是由樟腦(Cinnamomum camphora)製成的。芳樟精油是由日本,中國和斯里蘭卡生長的樹木製成的。這些樹木與馬達加斯加的樟樹具有相同的植物學特性,但是它們的葉子主要由芳樟醇組成(在90%的範圍內)。實際上,中國的芳樟油已代替花梨木作為天然芳樟醇的首選來源。 (芳樟油不是從樹上的木材中提取的,而是由樹葉製成的)。

You can always rely on your nose to tell which oil you are getting.
Ravintsara oil has a faint camphor odor, whereas oil from Ravensara aromatic smells of anise. If you know the chemical composition of the oils, take note og the cineol content. Ravensara aromatic in its true from has a very low cineol content, whereas leaves from the ravintsara tree have a 50 to 70 percent cineol content.
The name raventsara sometimes appears in papers and commercial literature about the ravintsara leaf. This word is an attempt to build a bridge between the Malagasy ravintsara and the Latinized ravensara. Anyone who deals in essential oils with the name raventsara probably isn’t dealing with a full deck.

您總是可以依靠鼻子判斷您正在獲取哪種油。
桉油樟油具有淡淡的樟腦氣味,而羅文莎葉油則具有茴香的芳香氣味。 如果您知道這些油的化學成分,請注意其桉油醇含量。 真正的羅文莎葉芳香族化合物的桉油醇含量非常低,而桉油樟樹上的葉子的桉油醇含量為50%至70%。
Raventsara(羅文莎葉)這個名字有時出現在有關ravintsara(桉油樟)的論文和商業文獻中。 這個詞是為了在Malagasy ravintsara和Latinized ravensara之間架起一座橋樑。 任何提到以raventsara作為精油名稱的人也許都會感到混亂吧!
 


關鍵字:Aniseed ,essential oil,Ravensara ,Rose,Rosewood,精油,羅文莎葉,芳香療法,高階,

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