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解剖與生理學課程:細胞、組織、表皮系統
IFPA 相關

/ 2020/07/10

CELLS
細胞

 
The Student will be able to:

  1. Explain why a cell is the basic unit of life in terms of organisation, metabolism, responsiveness, growth, repair and reproduction從組織,新陳代謝,反應能力,生長,修復和繁殖的角度解釋為什麼細胞是生命的基本單位
  2. Describe the structure of a typical human cell and the structure and functions of the following organelles 描述典型的人類細胞結構以及以下細胞器的結構和功能:cell membrane細胞膜、Golgi apparatus高基氏體、cytoplasm細胞質、endoplasmic reticulum內質網、centrosome中心體、nucleolus核仁、nucleus細胞核、ribosome核醣體、chromosome染色體、mitochondria粒線體
  3. Describe how cells vary according to function描述細胞如何根據功能變化
  4. Explain briefly the composition, location and functions of DNA and RNA in the cell簡要說明DNA和RNA在細胞中的組成、位置和功能
  5. Describe the processes of mitosis and meiosis描述有絲分裂和減數分裂的過程
  6. Define the terms diffusion, osmosis, filtration, active and passive transport, phagocytosis and pinocytosis in relation to cell membranes 定義與細胞膜有關的術語擴散,滲透,過濾,主動和被動轉運,吞噬作用和胞飲作用
  7. Explain how free radicals, glucose and the ageing process affect cells解釋自由基、葡萄糖和衰老過程如何影響細胞

TISSUES
組織
 

TYPES OF TISSUE , LOCATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 組織的類型,位置和功能
 
The Student will be able to:

  • Define the term tissue and list the four principal types of tissue found in the human body, together with their functions定義“組織”一詞,列出人體內發現的四種主要組織類型及其功能:
1.Epithelial上皮組織:

simple, stratified & pseudostratified 單層 複層 偽複層
squamous, cuboidal, columnar 鱗狀 立方 柱狀
glandular (exocrine /endocrine) 腺體(外分泌/內分泌)
ciliated 纖毛
              

2. Connective結締組織:

loose & fatty疏鬆&脂肪組織 (aerolar, adipose, reticular) 油狀.脂肪.網狀
dense致密結締組織 (dense regular, dense irregular, elastic) 密集規律,密集不規則,彈性                                 
cartilage 軟骨組織 (hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage) 透明,彈性,纖維軟骨
bone  骨組織
liquid 血液 (blood & lymph)血液&淋巴

  • Describe the relationship of matrix to cells in each group of connective tissue描述各組結締組織中基質與細胞的關係:

3. Muscular肌肉組織:

Skeletal骨骼肌 voluntary 受意志支配
smooth平滑肌  involuntary 不受意志支配
cardiac 心臟肌 striated & non striated橫紋和非橫紋

4. Nervous神經組織:

neurones 神經元
neuroglia 神經膠質細胞

  • Explain the process of tissue repair and the conditions affecting it 解釋組織修復的過程和影響它的條件

THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM表皮系統
 
The Student will be able to:
  • Name the constituent parts of the integumentary system and briefly describe its functions 說出表皮系統的組成部分並簡要描述其功能:
temperature regulation溫度調節
absorption & excretion吸收和排泄

​-protection保護
-synthesis of vitamin D維他命D的合成
-sensory perception感官知覺

-immunity免疫
  • Label correctly a diagram of the skin, to identify the following正確標記皮膚圖,以識別以下內容:
-Epidermis表皮:Stratum corneum角質層、Stratum lucidum透明層、Stratum granulosum顆粒層、Stratum spinosum棘狀層、Stratum basale (germinativum)基底層
-Dermis真皮:Papillary region乳頭層、Reticular region網狀層
-Subcutaneous layer eg.  blood vessels, nerve ending皮下層血管,神經末梢
  • Describe the location, structure and functions of the appendages of the skin描述皮膚分層的位置、結構和功能:Sebaceous glands, ceruminous glands, sweat glands, hair and nails皮脂腺,耵聹腺,汗腺,頭髮和指甲
  • Explain the functions of keratin and melanin解釋角蛋白和黑色素的功能
  • Explain the process of absorption through the skin解釋皮膚吸收的過程
  • Define the term erythema 紅斑定義
  • Explain how ageing affects the skin解釋衰老如何影響皮膚
  • Describe the process of pigmentation and how the effects of excessive exposure to sunlight may affect the skin描述色素沉著的過程以及過度暴露在陽光下對皮膚的影響
  • Name & briefly describe common disorders/diseases of the skin including命名並簡短描述常見的皮膚疾病/疾病,包括:
-Infections感染
Bacterial細菌:Acne, impetigo痤瘡,膿皰
Fungal真菌:Tineas (eg athlete’s foot)癬
Viral病毒:Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster單純皰疹,帶狀皰疹,Papillomas (eg warts) 乳頭狀瘤
 
-Decubitus ulcers褥瘡潰瘍
-Pediculosis (lice) 頭蝨
-Rubella, varicella, hives風疹、水痘、麻疹
-Scabies疥瘡
-Allergies and reactions過敏和反應
General allergies 一般過敏
Dermatitis皮膚炎
Photosensitivity 光敏感
Burns 燒傷
-Chronic skin conditions 慢性皮膚病
Eczema 濕疹
Psoriasis 乾癬
Scleraderma 硬皮症
Skin Cancers 皮膚癌
Chronic ulcers 慢性潰瘍

關鍵字:免疫,感染,淋巴,病毒,皮膚,神經,細菌,肌肉,骨骼,

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