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解剖與生理學課程:神經系統與內分泌系統
IFPA 相關

/ 2020/07/10

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
神經系統
 
The Student will be able to:

  • Explain how the nervous system acts as one of the body’s control systems解釋神經系統如何作為身體的控制系統之一
  • Describe the structure and functions of neurones and glial cells描述神經元和神經膠質細胞的結構和功能
  • Label a diagram of a typical motor neurone標記典型的運動神經元圖
  • Define the terms sensory, motor, afferent, efferent, mixed and tracts in relation to the nervous system定義與神經系統有關的術語感覺,運動,傳入,傳出,混合
  • Define the terms reception, transmission, integration and response in relation to the nervous system定義與神經系統相關的接收、傳輸、整合和回應等術語
  • Define a synapse and explain its role in relation to the transmission of a nerve impulse定義突觸並解釋其在神經衝動傳遞中的作用


CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
中樞神經系統

 
The Student will be able to:

  • Summarise the functions & organisation of the central nervous system總結中樞神經系統的功能和組織
  • Describe the protection of the brain and spinal cord (meninges and CSF)描述大腦和脊髓(腦膜和腦脊液)的保護
  • Describe the gross structure and functions of the spinal cord:描述脊髓的總體結構和功能:
  • Describe a reflex arc描述反射弧
  • Outline the structure and main functions of the brain: 概述大腦的結構和主要功能
  • Indicate the location and functions of the principal parts  (brain stem: medulla, pons & mid brain , cerebellum, cerebrum, cerebral cortex)指出主要部分的位置和功能(腦幹:延髓、腦橋和中腦、小腦、大腦、大腦皮質)
  • Name the major structures comprising the Limbic System and describe their functions:Hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, cingulate gyrus說出構成邊緣系統的主要結構並描述其功能:下視丘、杏仁核、海馬迴、穹窿束、扣帶迴
  • Describe briefly the process of sensory reception and sensory adaptation簡要描述感覺接收和感覺適應的過程


PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
外周神經系統

 
The Student will be able to:

  • Name the following cranial & somatic peripheral nerves in relation to their function, location and type: 根據其功能,位置和類型,命名以下顱骨和軀體周圍神經:

-Cranial顱骨:facial面部神經、olfactory 嗅神經、Trigeminal三叉神經、Vagus 迷走神經、Accessory 副神經
-Somatic體細胞:brachial臂神經叢 、sciatic & branches薦/尾神經叢、obdurator閉孔神經

  • Explain the arrangement of plexuses & ganglia解釋神經叢和神經節的排列
  • Define the phrase “segmental innervation of the body”  (dermatomes)定義短語“身體的部分神經支配”

 
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
自主神經系統

 
The Student will be able to:

  • Outline the structure of the component parts of the autonomic nervous system概述自主神經系統組成部分的結構
  • Compare and contrast the functions of the sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous system, explaining the physiological effects of each.比較和對比交感神經系統和副交感神經系統的功能,解釋各自的生理作用
  • Briefly describe the integration and control of autonomic functions簡要描述神經系統中綜合和控制的功能


THE SPECIAL SENSES
特殊感官

 
The Student will be able to:

  • Explain the process of sensory reception解釋感覺接收的過程
  • Describe the five types of receptor and the types of energy they detect描述五種類型的受體及其偵測到的能量型態:

-Chemoreceptors化學受體: odours, tastes, body fluid composition氣味,味道,體液成分
-Thermoreceptors溫度感受體:heat & cold冷熱
-Nociceptors傷害受體:pain, heat & chemicals疼痛、熱和化學物質
-Mechanoreceptors機械式受體: touch, pressure觸碰、按壓
-Photoreceptors感光接受體:light光源
       

  • Describe the structure and functions of the special senses: hearing, sight, taste, touch and smell描述特殊感官的結構和功能:聽覺、視覺、味覺、觸覺和嗅覺
  • Describe the process of olfaction to include the component structures, their functions and the pathways and mechanisms by which odours are thought to be perceived描述嗅覺的過程,包括成分結構、它們的功能以及人們認為可以感知氣味的途徑和機制
  • Explain how adaptation affects the sense of smell 解釋適應是如何影響嗅覺的
  • Explain the relationship of the sense of smell to emotions and memory解釋嗅覺與情緒和記憶的關係
  • Name & briefly describe common disorders/diseases of the nervous system, including命名並簡要描述神經系統的常見疾病,包括:

-Central nervous system中樞神經系統         

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)暫時性腦缺血、Multiple sclerosis多發性硬化、Cerebrovascular accident ( stroke)中風、Epilepsy癲癇、Cerebral palsy腦性麻痺 、Alzheimers阿茲海默症、Migraine 偏頭痛、Parkinsons帕金森氏症、Spinal cord injury脊髓損傷、Motor neurone disease肌萎縮性脊髓側索硬化、Differentiate between upper & lower motor neurone lesions區分上下運動神經元病變

-Peripheral nervous system周圍神經系統

TSciatica坐骨神經痛、Multiple sclerosis多發性硬化、Poliomyelitis脊髓灰質炎、Bell’s Palsy貝爾氏麻痺症、Trigeminal neuralgia三叉神經痛、Herpes zoster帶狀疱診

-Psychological 心理

Post natal depression產後抑鬱症、Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)季節性抑鬱症、Clinical Depression臨床抑鬱症                                       

-Sensory disorders感覺處理失調

Olfactory disorders ie: anosmia嗅覺異常、Taste alterations ie: mouth ulcers味覺改變
Visual disturbances ie: cataracts, glaucoma, conjunctivitis視覺障礙,例如:白內障,青光眼,結膜炎
Auditory disturbances ie: deafness, tinnitus, vertigo, otitis media聽覺障礙,即:耳聾,耳鳴,眩暈,中耳炎

 
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

內分泌系統
 
The Student will be able to:

  • Describe briefly the functions of the endocrine system in relation to homeostasis簡述內分泌系統與體內平衡的關係
  • Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands區分內分泌腺和外分泌腺
  • Define the term hormone and list the functions of hormones定義激素一詞並列出荷爾蒙的功能
  • Identify and locate on a diagram the principal endocrine glands, list the hormones produced by them, their functions and target organs在圖表上確定並定位主要內分泌腺體,列出它們產生的荷爾蒙、功能和目標器官
  • Describe the four principal classes of hormones描述四種主要的荷爾蒙
  • Explain the terms  “negative and positive feedback” in relation to the release of hormones解釋與荷爾蒙釋放有關的“負反饋和正反饋”
  • Explain the means by which the body controls hormonal levels解釋身體控制荷爾蒙水平的方法
  • Explain the function of the hypothalamus in relation to the endocrine system.解釋下視丘與內分泌系統的關係
  • Identify the hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland and list their actions找出腦下垂體前葉和後葉分泌的荷爾蒙並列出它們的作用
  • Identify those hormones secreted by the thyroid and parathyroid glands and list their actions找出甲狀腺和甲狀旁腺分泌的荷爾蒙並列出它們的作用
  • Explain the roles of insulin and glucagon in the control of blood glucose解釋胰島素和升糖素在控制血糖中的作用
  • Describe the role of the adrenal medulla and cortex, the hormones they produce and their effects on the body. 描述腎上腺髓質和皮質的作用,它們產生的荷爾蒙及其對身體的影響。
  • List the hormonal changes in the male and female during puberty and in the female in breast development and during pregnancy, lactation and menopause列出男性和女性在青春期、女性乳房發育期、懷孕期、哺乳期和更年期的荷爾蒙變化
  • List the principle actions of the gonadotropic hormones and ovarian hormones and discus the feedback mechanisms involved in their regulation列出促性腺荷爾蒙和卵巢荷爾蒙的主要作用,並討論其調節所涉及的反饋機制
  • Describe briefly the term prostaglandin簡要描述「前列腺素」一詞
  • Explain how stress may affect the endocrine system解釋壓力如何影響內分泌系統
  • Name and briefly describe common disorders/diseases of the endocrine system, including命名並簡要描述內分泌系統的常見疾病,包括:

-Pituitary腦下垂體: acromegaly肢端肥大症、diabetes insipidus尿崩症
-Thyroid甲狀腺:hyperthyroidism甲狀腺機能亢進、Graves disease 葛瑞夫茲病、Hypothyroidism甲狀腺機能低下

Parathyroid副甲狀腺素:calcium deficiency 鈣缺乏症
-Pancreas胰臟: diabetes mellitus (type 1 & 11)糖尿病(1&11型)
-Adrenal腎上腺:  Addisons disease愛迪生氏病、Cushing syndrome庫欣氏症
-Other其他: premenstrual syndrome經前症候群

 


關鍵字:疼痛,神經,頭痛,

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